Sunday, 17 June 2018

ইংরেজি ২য় পত্র: Right Form of Verb এর ব্যবহারের নিয়ম part 1

USE OF THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS

l. Subject যদি 3rd Person ও Singular number হয় এবং verb যদি Present Indefinite Tense-এ
থাকে তাহলে Verb-এর শেষে s বা es যোগ করতে হয় ।
যেমন:
The boy (play) football.
Ans: The boy plays football.

2. Universal truth চিরন্তন সত্য), habitual fact (অভ্যাসগত কর্ম) বুঝালে Present Indefinite Tense হয়।
যেমন:
The sun (rise) in the East.
Ans: The sun rses in the East

3. কোন সময়ের উল্লেখ থাকে না এমন sentenceএ যদি always, regularly, sometimes, often , generally, occasionally, normally , datly, everyday, usually, ইত্যাদি থাকে তবে  Present Indefinite Tense হয়।
যেমন:

He always (disturb) the class.
Ans. He always disturbs the class.
When Mr. Karim (take) his food nprmally?
Ans. When does Mr. Karm take his food normally?
A good boy (prepare) his lessons regularly.
Ans;A good boy prepares his lessons regularly.

4. Be verb বিহীন বাক্যকে Negative বা Interrogative করতে হলে Tense ও Subject অনুসারে do, does  বা did ব্যবহার করতে হয় ।
যেমন:
The girl not (sing) a song.
Ans: The girl does not sing a song.
He (come) home yesterday?
Ans: Did he come home yesterday?

5. Interrogative Sentence-এ যদি what, when, where, who, which, whose, why, how থাকে তাহলে ।
subject এর পূর্বে Tense ও person অনুযায়ী to be verb যোগ করতে হয়। Tobe verb না থাকলে Tense ও
Person অনুযায়ী do/does বা did বসে ।
যেমন:
What you (do) now?
Ans: What are you doing now?
Why Mrs. Pitt(look) so angry?
Ans: Why does Mrs. Pitt look so angry?
What you (want)?
Ans: What do you want?

6. বর্তমানে চলছে এমন কোন কাজ বুঝাতে verb এর Present continous Tense হয়। এক্ষেত্রে বর্তমান সময়ের (যেমন now, at this moment ইত্যাদি) উল্লেখ থাকে।
যেমন:
He (sing) a song now.
Ans: He is singing a song now.
They (watch) TV. at this moment.
Ans:  They are watching TV. at this moment.

7. কোন sentence- এ যদি has, have / had থাকে তাহলে  Verb এর Past particlple হয়।
যেমন
He has (do) the work.
Ans: He has done the work.
We have (make) him captain.
Ans: We have made him captain.

8. Just, just now, already, yet, ever, lately, recently. থাকলে Present Perfect Tense হয় ।
যেমন:
I (see) him recently.
Ans: I have seen him recently.
You ever (be) to Dhaka?
Ans: Have you ever been to Dhaka?.

9. অতীত নির্দেশক শব্দ বা phrase যেমন yesterday, ago, long sIince, last night ইত্যাদি থাকলে verb  এর Past form হয় ।
যেমন:
He( leave) home last night.
Ans: He left home last night.
I (come) home yesterday.
Ans: I came home yesterday.
I (see) you long ago.
Ans: I saw you long ago.

10. No Sooner had........  than, scarcely had........... when, hardly had........... when থাকলে ১ম ব্রাকেটের Verb কে past participle করতে হয় এবং ২য় ব্রাকেটের Verb কে past form করতে হয় । যেমনঃ
No sooner had he (see) the police than he (run) away.
Ans: No sonner had he seen the police than he ran away.

11. Since এর ১ম অংশ Present Indefinite/ Present Perfect Tense হলে পরের অংশ Past Indefinite
tense হয়। যেমনঃ
It is many years since I (come) to Dhaka.
Ans: It is many years since I came  to Dhaka.
Many years have passed since his father (die).
Ans: Many years have passed since his father died.

12. Since-এর প্রথম অংশ Past Indefinite হলে পরের অংশ Past Perfect করতে হয় । যেমন-
It was many years since they first (meet)
Ans: It was many years since they had first met.
It was long since I (see) her last.
Ans: It was long since I had seen her last.

13. Before এর প্রথম অংশ Past Perfect tense- এর হলে পরের অংশ Past Indefinite tense হয় । আর
after এর প্রথম অংশ Past Indefinite tense এর হলে পরের অংশ Past Perfect tense হয় ।
(i) The patient (dite) before the doctor came.
Ans: The patient had died before the doctor came.
(ii) The patient died after the doctor (come).
Ans: The patient died after the doctor had come.

14. যদি কোন simple sentence এ দুটি verb থাকে তাহলে ব্রাকেটের Verb এর সাথে ing যোগ করতে হয়।
অথবা verb টির পূর্বে to  বসাতে হয় অথবা verb টির Past Partciple করতে হয়।
(i) I saw him ( go).
Ans: I saw him going .
(ii) I don't (leave) this place.
Ans: I don't want to  leave this place.

15. Had better, had rather, would better, would rather, let, must, need, dare ইত্যাদির পর প্রদত্ত verb এর Present form হয় এবং প্রদত্ত verb এর পূর্বে to থাকলে উক্ত to উঠে যায় ।
(i) You had better (to go) home.
Ans: You had better go home.

16. Sentence শুরুতে would that থাকলে subject এর পরে could বসে এবং প্রদত্ত verb এর Present form বসে । যেমন:
Would I (go) to college.
Ans: Would that I could go to college.

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